Besides containing mercury, these energy saving bulbs also emit ultrasound and UV. It would be better to skip "LED" technology which is less harmful.
Par Pryska Ducoeurjoly
ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN
September October 2009
Le Grenelle de l’environnement a parlé. In 2012, incandescent bulbs, too energy intensive, have disappeared from the market and will be replaced by CFLs, CFLs. An idea not so bright. Slow ignition, presence of low-dose mercury (case sensitive), significant electromagnetic pollution, Added to this is new perverse effects : ultrasounds and UV.
Operating on the model of our domestic neons, if they were not equipped with a specific device, these bulbs should mechanically emit the characteristic sound of tube lights. "To avoid annoying vibrations to the auditory 50 Hertz, manufacturers have established an electronic generator at frequencies ranging from 18 KHz to over 55 KHZ depending on model. We are in the range of ultrasonic ", Roland ensure Wehrlen, electronics, independent expert in electromagnetic pollution.
"The human ear can not hear these sounds, so nobody cares. But be aware that short, there cavitation at the cellular level, therefore a health risk. Measurements made with a decibel meter display 80 db one centimeter, 70 db 10 cm, 60 db 20 cm. Beyond, this decreases regularly, but for safety, it is advisable to stay at least 1,5 meter of these bulbs ".
radiofrequency. This safe distance, making it unfit CFLs as desk lamp, bedside, or for precision work, is similar when considering the control of electromagnetic fields. The journalist Annie Lobe, author of "The Electricity Fairy", tested these bulbs with Gaussmeter, in the context of a video available on the (1). While a conventional bulb emits no field, reached a CFL 25 milligauss. The finding sometimes rises up 150 mG. Now these electromagnetic fields were classified as possibly carcinogenic by the WHO and the International Agency for Research against cancer. Annie Lobé also reported radiofrequency emission, to 200 V/m, while the standard is 27 V/m.
Transmitters parasites. Alerted by pacemakers who underwent electromagnetic interference near these bulbs, Pierre Le Ruz, scientific director of the independent research and information center on electromagnetic radiation (Criirem), advanced these nuisances : "The problem arises especially short and ignition where there has been a spike". from 2002, l’Ineris (National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks) has also delivered a report on the electromagnetic exposure MOE. It appears that these bulbs can be parasitic transmitters capable of disrupting the measurements of mobile phone masts !
damage to eyes. De son côté, l’association Next-Up (www.next-up.org) peak risks from exposure to LFC youth : "Macular degeneration AMD (age-related) is becoming an epidemic since the generalization of fluorescent lighting, children are the first affected (…).Said fluorescent lamps emit their strongest peak energy at a wavelength of 435,8 nanomètres, This corresponds exactly to the maximum danger for eye retinal lesions " (2).
UV exposure. Another known risk month was highlighted recently by the European Scientific Committee for the study of emerging health risks (SCENIHR) : ultraviolet: "Some types of energy-saving bulbs could increase the symptoms of people suffering from specific dermatological diseases", according to the Directorate General of Health of the European Commission. The chronic actinic dermatitis and solar urticaria may well be aggravated: "In the extreme case of a prolonged exposure to a distance less than 20 centimeters in some single-envelope CFL, UV exposure is close to the current professional limits to protect workers damage the skin and retina. " 250 000 people (0,05 %of the European population) would be affected. The committee proposed the use of CFLs jacketed or similar technology can greatly reduce, or eliminate these risks. Additional equipment to provide for manufacturers.
limited life. "The more components, the greater the risk of failures are important ", recalls Roland Wehrlen. "These lamps operate as fluorescent tubes but they have also a special generator, a transformer, transistors, diodes, resistors and capacitors and chokes, about 25 to 30 components depending on the brand ". Sensitive to unwanted ignitions, their lifetime proves limited reality, especially when choosing bulbs in his first prizes.
"They can perform well at the start, but not for the thousands of hours announced, with a quick darkening around the electrodes and a UV-A transmission probably more important ", recalls Laurent Le Guyader, in a paper entitled "Choosing a Compact Fluorescent Lamp", written in 2000 according to a summary of the CFL tests by UFC and the INC and Tested For You (3).
"The electronic components used for ballast are of lower quality and fewer. In particular often lack positive temperature coefficient of resistance which allows a better operation repeated ignitions and better resistance to high temperature. (…) It is best to avoid these lamps advise residents of homes with electrical installation is not very reliable. The start-up inrush current may degrade completed a switch or a tired fuse wire in a fuse holder from the snuffbox type ", stresses that specialist.
3. www.enertech.fr/docs/Lfc.pdfomment choose
Long disparaged for their low lighting, LEDs are now displayed as green alternative to incandescent lamps and CFLs. Without electromagnetic interference and even less energy, LEDs are from the electronic technology (it is an alloy of rare metals in which the current passes). Currently, costs range from 25 and 100 euros each for a lighting equivalent 60 to 100 watt current, with a consumption 8 or 10 watts only. But for now, the market mainly offers 4 watt equivalent 30 watts.
Is first on the side of life, three times longer than a CFL, lies the advantage of LEDs. Between 30 000 and 50 000 hours, provided you opt for quality Led, that is to say equipped with a cooling apparatus (via a liquid or metal frame) and protective equipment against mains voltage variations.
After an initial investment result however, the individual will be able to equip "for life". Technological advances are at full speed in this sector. Quality new products coming to market, cheaper, that will enable households to directly replace their filament bulbs without using the LFC box.
Pending these more affordable, it is advisable to do some shopping last filament bulbs available on the market. They consume ten times, but without health risk. All indications are that the second hand market will grow, given their longevity. Wealthier preferring to equip Led latest generation, they could relist their previous acquisition.
Led the market promises to be unprofitable in the long term for manufacturers. "That's probably why the big French distributors are resisting, demonstrates a French importer and installer. I was threatened by telephone by a large corporation market, because I am interested in public lighting. The savings for the state and companies, particularly those with a lighting continuing need, are exceptional. The return on investment is unbeatable, especially because beyond the initial investment, switch to LEDs means removing the usual maintenance costs ".